Strategic objectives of jihadist groups in a context of political crisis in the Middle East
The Middle East and the geopolitical and economic importance of this region
The Middle East, which is a geopolitical region of about 17 countries and eight islands, which these countries included such as: Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. Moreover, if the independence of Northern Cyprus gains international recognition, then Northern Cyprus will be the 18th country in the Middle East, and even now in some writings and research reports, Northern Cyprus is referred to as the country of the Middle East. East. However, Northern Cyprus is still recognized by the United Nations as part of the island of Cyprus. The largest country in the Middle East by area is Saudi Arabia, and the most populous countries in the Middle East are Egypt, Iran, and Turkey.
The eight islands of the Middle East are Arabia, Asia Minor, Eastern Thrace, Egypt, Iran, the Levant, Mesopotamia and the Socotra Islands. Geopolitical and economic importance of the Middle East: The Middle East is a bridge between the three great continents because the Middle East is a connecting fabric between Europe, Africa and Asia. The Middle East has gained geopolitical importance by possessing some of the most important trade routes in the world, important canals such as the Suez Canal, the Strait of Turkey, the Strait of Hormuz and the Strait of Gibraltar, and points military strategic controls.
The Middle East’s vast oil resources, strategic trade routes, Middle East territory and ideas have given strategic importance to the geography of the Middle East. Oil and petroleum are the most widely available resources in the Middle East and the economies of many Asian, European and Western countries depend on the oil reserves of the Middle East. The Middle East produces almost 31% of the world’s oil because five of the ten countries that produce the most oil in the world are located in the Middle East, and besides oil, the Middle East produces 41% of the world’s natural gas.
In addition to having vast and inexhaustible natural reserves of oil, maritime trade routes and canals play an important role in the economic importance of the Middle East, among which the Suez Canal can be mentioned. The Suez Canal, which is considered the main maritime channel for transporting commercial goods between Europe and Asia, is located in Egypt in the Middle East region, and 12% of the world’s commercial goods pass through this road. Besides sea routes and canals, high-tech products also play an important role in the economic importance of the Middle East. Israel, which produces some of the best technology in the world, has attracted huge investments from the biggest technology companies in the world such as: Intel, Microsoft, Apple, Google, smartphones, computers and other technical products that you use have their technology developed in Israel.
The Middle East has been a transit route connecting, for centuries; people traveled from east to west using the Middle East route, so this region became one of the most important economic regions in the world.
Strategic importance in the Middle East
The Middle East has a strategic importance because it is located between Asia, Europe and Africa, such as the Suez Canal which makes it one of the most strategic and important transport areas in the world, and we cannot forget the oilfields that fuel the world with oil. The vast oil reserves of the Middle East, the maritime economic route and the geographical location of the Middle East have long caused this region to fall victim to political crisis and superpower competition.
Moreover, this region was a controversial big part of the world during the Cold War, as the West and the Soviet Union made great efforts to establish an alliance in the Middle East and for the loyalty of the countries. However, this region has become a zone of conflict between the West, China and Russia because each of them, namely the Eastern Alliance led by Russia and the Western Alliance led by the United States, are vying for influence in this region.
There are many reasons for the long-term political crisis in the Middle East, some of which we can outline below. Islam/Christianity/Judaism, Iran/Iraq conflict, Iran/Baha’i, Shiite/Sunni conflict led by Iran and Saudi Arabia, North/South Yemen, Everyone/Kurds, Struggle to create a State of Kurdistan , Syrian Revolution, Libyan Revolution, Israel/Palestinian Conflict, Tunisian Revolution, Arabs/Berbers, North/South Sudan, Lebanese Civil War, Water Shortage, Racism Against Women, Honor Killings.
The Chinese Silk Road also plays an important role in the Middle East crisis because the Chinese Silk Road was a network of trade routes through the Middle East connecting China and the Far East to the Middle East. East and Europe. In order to destroy this route, destabilizing the Middle East was one of the main objectives of the West to prevent China’s economic growth. These are all the reasons why the Middle East has been in turmoil since the 19th century, and these reasons allow the political crisis in the Middle East and the formation of jihadist groups in this region with the support of the West. The political crisis in the Middle East began in two stages after and before World War II.
Before World War II, the political crisis in the Middle East began with the collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the Sykes-Picot conspiracy between the British and the French. Completely build the region without considering the local communities. The British actually divided and ruled the region with their traditional policy, betraying the Arabs who had helped the British defeat the Turks. Also, with the Kurds who promised an independent country, but Churchill instead bombed and experimented with chemical weapons.
Undoubtedly, they opened Palestine to European Zionist colonization and supported the Saudi Wahhabi tribe against the Hashemite intellectuals during the Arab Civil War. The second phase began after World War II, when the Americans became increasingly involved in the Middle East, in order to weaken China and Russia in the Middle East and to overthrow the pro-Russian and pro-Russian government. Chinese in Asia under the control of China and Russia or to sacrifice long-lasting civil wars. A good example is Afghanistan, which has become a victim of the 40-year-old war, whose origin of ideas and jihadist groups started from the Gulf countries and the Middle East.
In Afghanistan, America supported the Mujahideen against the Soviet Union and a progressive government of Afghanistan that had given equal rights to women, and is still proud that it led to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Attempted a coup in Syria, forcing the nation into the arms of Moscow, and succeeded with a coup in Iran, where they overthrew their first democratic government. America then supported Iraq in a terrible war against Iran, in which hundreds of thousands of young people were killed by chemical weapons, and these weapons were largely supplied by the West. The Americans then turned to Iraq when Saddam fell silent and invaded openly, before sanctions were lifted, killing half a million children. Since 9/11, a dubious event to say the least, the United States has invaded the entire Middle East under false pretenses, causing millions of deaths, untold suffering, waves of refugees, ongoing civil unrest and provoked widespread terrorism.
The West has adopted a “divide and rule” policy regarding the Middle East
The Middle East no longer knows peace and tranquility. Because America also supports the dictatorship and supports the apartheid regime in Israel, despite the ethnic cleansing of its own Palestinian population. Essentially, America did to the region what the Nazis did to Europe and the British to Africa.
In order to dominate the onshore oil reserves in the Middle East, to prevent the military and economic development of China and Russia in the Middle East, and to divide and destroy the great and strong government of the Middle East, the United States has deployed dozens of jihadist groups in the Middle East. In order to destabilize the region through these groups and financially support these groups, the western alliance illegally seized the oil resources of the Middle East and formed more jihadist organizations in the Middle East with the revenue from these reserves. of oil.
There are over 16 major jihadist organizations and over 40 local jihadist armed groups in the Middle East
Jihadist groups, some of which are trained by Iran with the financial and military support of Russia and the Eastern Alliance such as: Hamas, Hezbollah, Fatimiun, the Palestinian resistance in Gaza and the Houthi rebels in Yemen. Some jihadist groups are backed by America in the Middle East with support from the West. The most destructive group is the Islamic Dalit group or ISIS, which has been destabilizing the Middle East for years.
There are many armed groups and propagandists in the Middle East who are fighting to establish Dar al-Islam in the world, which is supported by the majority of groups by the Western world.
1: Islamic Army of Aden-Abyan, 2: Abdullah Azzam Brigades, 3: Hayat Tahrir Al-Shaam, 4: Maghweer al-Thura, 5: Al-Nusra Front, 6: Al-Itihaad al-Islamiya, 7: Ansar al-Sharia in Libya, 8: Al-Qaeda, Ansar al-Islam, 9: Harakat Sham al-Islam, 10: Ansar al-Din, 11: Front, Jund al-Aqsa 12: Egyptian Islamic Jihad, 13: Islamic State in Libya, 14: Islamic State – Province of Yemen, 15: Hizb al-Tahrir, a propaganda group which fights to establish Dar al-Islam in the world, 16: Society of the Muslim Brotherhood, a propaganda group which fights to establish Dar al-Islam in the world.
These are the groups that have been active in their jihadist struggle in the Middle East for years, so each group can achieve its goals separately. However, some of these groups are inactive now, but they could start operating again, such as the Maghaweer al-Thura group in Syria.
The struggle of a number of armed groups in the Middle East is to destabilize the Middle East and pave the way for the influence of America and the Western world in the region in order to prevent China and Russia .